Nina Clifford’s brothel at 147 South Washington Avenue in St. Paul, down the street from Ida Dorsey’s brothel at 151 South Washington Avenue. Photograph by A. F. Raymond, 1937.

Home of Nina Clifford

Nina Clifford’s brothel at 147 South Washington Avenue in St. Paul, down the street from Ida Dorsey’s brothel at 151 South Washington Avenue. Photograph by A. F. Raymond, 1937.

A street scene at the intersection of Second Street North and Second Avenue North, Minneapolis, around the time that Ida Dorsey operated a brothel on Second Avenue. Photographer unknown, ca. 1912.

Second Street North from Second Avenue North, Minneapolis

A street scene at the intersection of Second Street North and Second Avenue North, Minneapolis, around the time that Ida Dorsey operated a brothel on Second Avenue. Photographer unknown, ca. 1912.

Building at 220 Eleventh Avenue South, Minneapolis, close to Ida Dorsey’s Eleventh Avenue bordello. Photograph by Joseph Zalusky, ca. 1890s.

220 Eleventh Avenue South, Minneapolis

Building at 220 Eleventh Avenue South, Minneapolis, close to Ida Dorsey’s Eleventh Avenue bordello. Photograph by Joseph Zalusky, ca. 1890s.

Dorsey, Ida (1866–1918)

Employing the racial prejudices and fantasies of elite male clients once used against her, Ida Dorsey established herself as one of the Twin Cities’ most notorious madams, running multiple brothels between the 1880s and the 1910s. As a woman of color in an industry dominated by white women, she demonstrated herself an adept businesswoman and real estate owner when most women had neither income nor property.

Hormel strikers' picket line

Hormel strikers' picket line

Hormel Foods employees link arms to form a picket line during the 1985–1986 strike against that company.

Police release tear gas on Hormel protesters

Police release tear gas on Hormel protesters

On April 10, 1986, police use tear gas on workers protesting the Hormel Foods company. Minneapolis Star Tribune negatives collection, box 596 (Hormel strike images).

American Dream movie poster

American Dream movie poster

The Academy Award-winning documentary film American Dream, directed by Barbara Kopple, chronicles the Hormel strike, exploring the human cost of the economic decline in America’s heartland. Kopple captured the tension between the strikers, the parent union, and Hormel through failed negotiations and demonstrations. The film shows P-9 members banding together to help each other as the strike dragged on. American Dream also follows union infighting, fights with replacement workers, and P9’s hiring of consultant Ray Rogers, who specialized in union strategizing and gaining public support. Used with the permission of Barbara Kopple.

Hormel strike button

Hormel strike button

Local P-9 Hormel strike button worn by member of the United Foods and Commercial Workers International Union, Local P-9, to protest at the Hormel plant in Austin, Minnesota, 1985–1986.

Hormel strike button

Hormel strike button

Hormel strike button worn by a member of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, Local P-9, to protest at the Hormel plant in Austin, Minnesota, 1985–1986.

Hormel strike button

Hormel strike button

Hormel strike button worn by a member of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, Local P-9, to protest at the Hormel plant in Austin, Minnesota, 1985–1986.

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