Illustration depicting an Ojibwe man named Kawetahsay reportedly wounded during the Battle of Shakopee.

Kawetahsay, shot in the mouth at the Battle of Shakopee, 1858

Illustration depicting an Ojibwe man named Kawetahsay reportedly wounded during the Battle of Shakopee, Saint Paul Globe, October 7, 1900.

Black-and-white photonegative of the site where the Dakota and Ojibwe fought the Battle of Shakopee in 1858.

Battle ground where the Dakota and Ojibwe fought the Battle of Shakopee in 1858

Black-and-white photonegative of the site where the Dakota and Ojibwe fought the Battle of Shakopee in 1858. Photographed c.1875 by William H. Jacoby.

Battle of Shakopee, 1858

The last in a long series of violent conflicts between Dakota and Ojibwe people took place on the banks of the Minnesota River north of the village of the Dakota leader Shakpedan (Little Six) on May 27, 1858. Dozens of Ojibwe and Dakota warriors engaged in fighting that claimed lives on both sides but produced no clear victor.

MN90: The controversial life and death of Chief Hole in the Day the Younger

Ojibwe Chief Hole in the Day the Younger (1827-1868) signed almost every land cession treaty between the Minnesota Ojibwe and the U.S. government. MN90 producer Marisa Helms reports that while the Chief was a controversial figure, he was also a very smart and effective negotiator. Still, the Chief had many enemies. On June 27, 1868, as he was traveling to Washington, D.C. to fight the removal of his people to a reservation at White Earth. Hole in the Day was assassinated by Ojibwe men from Leech Lake just a few miles from his home in Crow Wing.

Participants at a pow wow organized by the Prairie Island Dakota community and held on July 13, 1969. Photographed by Monroe P. Killy.

Prairie Island pow wow, 1969

Participants at a pow wow organized by the Prairie Island Dakota community and held on July 13, 1969. Photographed by Monroe P. Killy.

MN90: George Bonga: Minnesota's First Fur Trader

Half black, half Ojibwe, George Bonga was the first person of African descent born in what was then the territory of Minnesota in 1802. He was a fur trader and a treaty translator that forged vital relationships with both Europeans and Native Americans. Allison Herrera tells us more about his important role in Minnesota history.

The Dakota chief Good Thunder (seated) and his family. Photographed at the Lower Sioux Dakota community in Redwood County c.1900.

Chief Good Thunder and family

The Dakota chief Good Thunder (seated) and his family. Photographed at the Lower Sioux Dakota community in Redwood County c.1900.

Detail view of a map made in 1685 by Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin. Lake Mille Lacs (at center left) is labelled as "Lac des Sioux, suggesting that the area was known as a home for Dakota people as early as the seventeenth century.

1600s map with Lake Mille Lacs labelled Lake of the Sioux (Lac des Sioux)

Detail view of a map made in 1685 and 1686 by Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin. Lake Mille Lacs (at center left) is labelled as "Lac des Sioux" (Lake of the Sioux), suggesting that the area was known as a home for Dakota people as early as the seventeenth century. The map's original is stored at the Library of Congress.

Detail view of a map made in 185 by Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin. Text surrounding Lake Mille Lacs (at center left, labelled here as Lac de Buade) identifies the area as inhabited by the "Issatis," or Santee Dakota. The map provides some of the earliest extant textual evidence of a Dakota community at Lake Mille Lacs.

1600s map marking Lake Mille Lacs (Lac de Buade) as the home of the "Issatis" (Santee Dakota)

Detail view of a copy of a map made in 1688 by Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin. Text surrounding Lake Mille Lacs (at center left, labelled here as Lac de Buade) identifies the area as inhabited by the "Issatis," or Santee Dakota. The map provides some of the earliest extant textual evidence of a Dakota community at Lake Mille Lacs. The map is held by the Library of Congress.

Photograph of a group of Santee Dakota taken at Prairie Island c.1915.

Santee Dakota at Prairie Island

Photograph of a group of Santee Dakota taken at Prairie Island c.1915.

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