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St. Paul Union Depot

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St. Paul Union Depot.

St. Paul Union Depot, 1924-25.

The St Paul Union Depot Company was incorporated in 1879 by the railroads serving St. Paul. The company was created for the purpose of building and operating a single, jointly owned railroad passenger terminal. The first depot opened in 1881. It was destroyed by fire in 1884 and then rebuilt. The depot received an addition in a 1900-1901 remodeling project.

On October 3, 1913, fire struck again. The fire sped up plans for construction of a new depot to better provide for the city's growing passenger traffic. The nine owning railroads: the Great Northern, Northern Pacific, Rock Island, Minneapolis & St. Louis, Milwaukee, Omaha, Burlington, Soo Line, and Chicago Great Western, agreed on a 15 million dollar price tag after a long dispute over the size and cost of the new depot. Charles Frost, who designed the Great Northern and Milwaukee Road depots in Minneapolis and was a nationally-known designer of railroad stations, was chosen as the architect. George J Grant Construction Company and Foley Brothers were the principal contractors. Work began in 1917.

The new depot went up on the site of the old. During construction, a neighboring warehouse became a temporary ticket office and waiting room. Trains continued to arrive and depart as they had before the fire. As work progressed, all tracks and approaches to the new depot were elevated above the original site. The old tracks on the lower level removed. The entire project took nearly nine years to complete.

The business and ticket lobby opened on March 1, 1920. The concourse and the waiting room were completed and opened in phases between 1922 and 1924. A roundhouse for servicing locomotives was located southeast of the depot complex. A two-story yard office building served as an operations center for train directors. Train directors supervised the movement of trains in and out of the depot, much like today's airport ground controllers.

For the passengers, the business lobby, concourse and waiting room offered all the comforts of a big city passenger station. There was a ticket office and baggage check, a Western Union office and telephone room, a Travelers Aid office, barber shop, drug store, coffee shop, dining room, and a newsstand. Rest rooms had bathing facilities for the tired traveler. Above the business lobby there were offices for the Union Depot Company and a small emergency hospital. A recreation center, featuring a twelve-lane bowling alley, opened on the second floor of the concourse in 1941. That same year, the Twin City Model Railroad Club added a model train layout adjoining the ticket lobby In 1954, the William Crooks, Minnesota's first steam locomotive, was put on display across from the ticket office.

After New York and Chicago, St Paul Union Depot was the largest railway mail transfer facility in the country. The depot was also headquarters for the tenth division of the US Railway Mail Service. In the 1940s and 50s 40,000 to 50,000 mail bags per day, along with thousands of parcel post packages and railway express, moved through the depot. Some 400 people worked at loading and unloading cars and sorting mail pouches and packages.

The number of trains using the depot declined in the 1920s and 1930s. The number briefly rose during World War II, only to slide again as railroads stopped costly passenger trains in response to automobile and airline competition. Amtrak took over intercity passenger service on May 1, 1971. They moved the remaining trains to the Great Northern Station in Minneapolis. The depot closed. All the tracks and boarding platforms were removed. The concourse and waiting room sold to the US Postal Service in 1978. A private developer purchased the business lobby in 1981. In 2012, the Ramsey County Rail Authority owns the property and is transforming it into a regional transportation center.

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Great Northern Railway corporate records, 1854–1970
Great Northern Records, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00522.htm
Corporate records of the St. Paul-based Great Northern, its predecessors, and its subsidiaries and affiliates, documenting their operations across the northern tier of western states for more than one hundred years, until its 1970 merger with the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, and the Spokane, Portland and Seattle that formed the Burlington Northern.

Minnesota Transfer Railway Company Records,1882–1983
Manuscripts Collection, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00487.xml
Minutes (1883–1970), stock certificates (1890–1898), annual reports (1902–1980), correspondence and subject files (1910s–1960s), financial and accounting records (1884–1968), operating analyses (1921–1952) and monthly operating reports (1929–1980), maps and engineering drawings (1903–1957), payroll records (1882–1980), and miscellaneous legal papers documenting the existence of a St. Paul-based railroad company organized in 1883 by a consortium of the nine major railroads to facilitate the transfer and handling of freight entering the Twin Cities by rail.

Northern Pacific Railway Records, 1861–1970
Northern Pacific Records, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00521.htm
Corporate records of the St. Paul-based Northern Pacific, its predecessors, and its subsidiaries and affiliates, documenting their operations across the northern tier of western states for more than one hundred years, until its 1970 merger with the Great Northern, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, and the Spokane, Portland and Seattle that formed the Burlington Northern.

Soo Line Railroad Company Records, 1855–1994
Manuscript Collection Remote Storage, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00343.xml
Records of Minneapolis-based Soo Line Railroad Company, a grain and timber products carrier serving the upper Midwest and providing U.S. connections for the Canadian Pacific Railway. Included are records of predecessor companies Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Railroad, Wisconsin Central Railroad, and Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railroad, as well as more than 80 other branch lines, predecessors, subsidiaries, and related companies.

St. Paul Union Depot Company Records, 1879–1985
Manuscript Collection, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00770.xml
The records document most important aspects of the company's management throughout its existence. There is information on its operations, finances, government relations, personnel, and physical plant. An extensive set of linen tracings document the construction and modification of the depot building.

Related Images

St. Paul Union Depot.
St. Paul Union Depot.
The old Union Depot, St. Paul.
The old Union Depot, St. Paul.
Steamboat Landing and River, St. Paul.
Steamboat Landing and River, St. Paul.
St. Paul Union Depot construction.
St. Paul Union Depot construction.
Main concourse, Union Depot, 214 East Fourth, St. Paul.
Main concourse, Union Depot, 214 East Fourth, St. Paul.
Passengers waiting to board a train in the concourse of the St. Paul Union Depot.
Passengers waiting to board a train in the concourse of the St. Paul Union Depot.
Passengers purchase train tickets at the St. Paul Union Depot.
Passengers purchase train tickets at the St. Paul Union Depot.
Railway Mail Service clerks load mail bags onto a Great Northern Railway Post Office car at the St. Paul Union Depot.
Railway Mail Service clerks load mail bags onto a Great Northern Railway Post Office car at the St. Paul Union Depot.
Looking east from the Robert Street bridge at a Milwaukee Road freight train behind double-headed steam locomotives passing the St. Paul Union Depot.
Looking east from the Robert Street bridge at a Milwaukee Road freight train behind double-headed steam locomotives passing the St. Paul Union Depot.

Turning Point

On October 3, 1913, fire strikes the St. Paul Union Depot for the second time, hastening plans for a new depot to accommodate the city's growing traffic.

Chronology

1879

The St. Paul Union Depot Company is incorporated.

1881

The first depot opens.

1884

Fire destroys the first depot and it is rebuilt.

1900-1901

The rebuilt depot is extensively remodeled.

1913

On October 3, fire strikes again, hastening plans for a new depot to accommodate the city's growing traffic.

1917

Work begins on the new depot.

1920

On March 1, the business and ticket lobbies open.

1922-1924

The concourse and waiting room are completed and opened in phases.

1941

A recreation center, featuring a twelve-lane bowling alley, opens on the second floor of the concourse. That same year, the Twin City Model Railroad Club adds a model train layout adjoining the ticket lobby.

1954

The William Crooks, Minnesota's first steam engine, is put on display across from the ticket office.

1971

Amtrak takes over intercity passenger service and the depot closes.

1978

The concourse and waiting room are sold to the U.S. Postal Service.

1981

A private developer purchases the business lobby.

2012

The Ramsey County Rail Authority owns the property and is transforming it into a regional transportation center.